*Under construction*

**PERMANOVA** (PDF – Presentation): Hypothesis testing methods for multivariate data are needed to make rigorous probability statements about the effects of factors and their interactions in experiments. However, traditional parametric methods are too stringent in their assumptions. Non-parametric methods, based on permutation tests, are preferable. A detailed description of the method is presented in Anderson, M., 2001. A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology, 26(1), pp.32–46.

**DATA EXPLORATION **(PDF – Presentation): A presentation protocol for data exploration to avoid common statistical problems. A detailed description of the method is presented in Zuur, A.F., Ieno, E.N. & Elphick, C.S., 2010. A protocol for data exploration to avoid common statistical problems. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 1(1), pp.3–14.

**PHYLOGENETIC COMPARATIVE METHODS** (Some R code to ): Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs) use information on the evolutionary relationships of organisms (phylogenetic trees) to compare species. The most common applications are to test for correlated evolutionary changes in two or more traits or to determine whether a trait contains a phylogenetic signal (the tendency for related species to resemble each other).